/*test3*/ How Powerful Was the Apollo 11 Computer? | iGotOffer
Apple iPhone

How Powerful Was the Apollo 11 Computer?

How powerful was the Apollo 11 computer?
How Powerful Was the Apollo 11 Computer?

How Powerful Was the Apollo 11 Computer?

I got to thinking, how powerful was the computer that took Man to the Moon back in 1969? How does the Apollo computer compare to the iPhone? (Who wants to go to the Moon, anyway?)

It turns out that’s a tough comparison to make, as the simplest of iPhones is so advanced compared to the technology used in Apollo’s guidance system that it’s hard to believe they both came from the same planet, and we can be pretty sure that we’re dealing with some really archaic hardware.

Indeed, those Big Machines were nothing short of amazing. Comparing the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) to an IBM PC XT. Did you know that the 8088 which formed the basis for the IBM PC, released in 1981, just a decade after Apollo 11’s trip to the Moon, had eight times more memory than Apollo’s Guidance Computer (16k, vs the Apollo’s 2k). The IBM PC XT ran at a dizzying clock speed of 4.077MHz. That’s 0.004077 GHz. The Apollo’s Guidance Computer was a snail-like 1.024 MHz in comparison, and it’s external signaling was half that.

Internally, the architecture of 8086 had 8 16-bit registers available to work with. It could keep track of eight registers, the Apollo Guidance Computer held just four.

The most amazing part that will blow you away isn’t so much the hardware, as the software they used to get to the Moon. In fact, the real-time operating system in the Apollo 11 spacecraft could multi-task eight jobs at a time, something we take entirely for granted today, but no small feat for the time it was developed.

Multi-tasking however, wasn’t quite as we now think of it. Our operating systems use pre-emptive -multitasking, where the operating system itself is in control of the execution and can stop any program at any time. The AGC relied on non-pre-emptive multi-tasking, whereby programs had to relinquish control back to the OS periodically.

The Apollo system also implemented a virtual machine which offered more complex instructions, and could be used to perform more advanced mathematics. For its time, this was way-out stuff in 2k of memory and 32k of storage. The OS managed transition between native instructions and the instruction set of the virtual machine, which let developers mix and match the hardware level instructions with the virtual instructions within the same assembler code.

Even more, the Apollo 11 was actually the advanced “Block II” version of the AGC – the earlier missions had relied upon as little as 24k of core read-only storage, and only 1k of main memory!

And what about interface? The AGC was way switches and blinking lights, and every command was entered in a combination of “verb noun pairs”, which would be input as numbers. These numbers were translated into English on a painted sign in the spacecraft.

The Apollo Guidance Computer had only one error message, and when it flashed, it meant the real end was near. On the Apollo 11 mission a 1201 error, and then a 1202 flashed causing enormous concern on the lander and back on Earth, after the spaceship crew had mistakenly left one radar system on, while the landing crew used a second system to determine the distance to the ground. The computer was taking in too much data to function, and left the crew in the lurch.

So, when you think about all those amazing manned missions to the Moon, and what it took to get there, keep in mind that had the complexities of the eventual AGC been understood when the NASA team began to design it, they likely never would have started, as they would have considered the computer far outside the available technology of the day.

We take interplanetary travel for granted today. One day Man is going to do the same with interstellar travel. And people will smile just looking at today’s iPhones and iPads, so obsolete and so out-of-date toys the Humans had to deal with to communicate.

­See also:

  • Apple Encyclopedia: all information about products, electronic devices, operating systems and apps from iGotOffer.com experts.
  • iGotOffer.com: the best place to sell my used iPhone online. Top cash guaranteed. Free quote and free shipping. BBB A+ rated business.
View Comments (18)

18 Comments

        Leave a Reply

        Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

        Apple iPhone

        More in Apple iPhone

        ©2022 iGotOffer.com. All Rights Reserved. iGotOffer.com is not affiliated with the manufacturers of the items available for trade-in. iGotOffer.com is trademarks of Best Video Studio LLC, registered in the U.S. All other trademarks, logos and brands are the property of their respective owners.

        Deneme bonusu Bonus veren siteler Bahis forum Wonmania8.com
        maltepe escort pendik escort ümraniye escort maltepe escort bayan escort ankara escort tuzla escort bodrum escort mamak escort çankaya escort ataşehir escort ümraniye escort bayan beylikdüzü escort
        izmir escort
        ataşehir escort
        pendik escort bayanlar kurtkoy escort

        sisli escort mecidiyekoy escort nisantasi escort kagithane escort antalya escort konyaalti escort sisliescort mecidiyekoyescort kadikoy escort

        atasehir escort anadolu yakasi escort ankara escort
        izmit escort bayan izmit anal yapan escort darıca escort izmit rus escort kocaeli escort bayan gemlik escort bursa escort pendik escort escort bayan tuzla sınırsız escort tuzla eve gelen escort tuzla otele gelen escort bursa escort escort bayan bursa eve gelen escort görükle escort bayan escort istanbul kadıköy escort ataköy escort bostancı escort göztepe escort avcılar escort kocaeli escort anal yapan escort darıca escort eve gelen escort gebze escort cialis cialis fiyat cialis 100 mg cialis 20 mg viagra escort ankara eryaman escort etlik escort çankaya escort kızılay escort sisli escort kurtuluş escort avrupa yakası escort şirinevler escort escort bursa bursa eve gelen escort bursa ucuz escort kartal escort atalar escort cevizli escort esentepe escort topselvi escort yakacik escort ugurmumcu escort karlıktepe escort cavuşoglu escort cumhuriyet escort gumuspinar escort kordonboyu escort orhantepe escort altayçeşme escort aydınevler escort zümrütevler escort gülsuyu escort gülensu escort girne escort başıbüyük escort bağlarbaşı escort idealtepe escort fındıklı escort esenkent escort büyükbakkalköy escort küçükyalı escort şişli escort taksim escort bursa escort seks izle zenci porno izle escort bayan ataşehir escort antalya kemer escort kepez escort antalya türbanlı escort ankara escort etlik escort çankaya escort kızılay escort demetevler escort dikmen escort esat escort eryaman escort ankara escort bayan
        ankara escort marmaris escort bursa escort mersin escort antalya escort izmir escort samsun escort bodrum escort çeşme escort kuşadası escort adana escort eskişehir escort gaziantep escort esenyurt escort pendik escort tuzla escort fatih escort ümraniye escort mecidiyeköy escort kartal escort bahçelievler escort bahçeşehir escort ataşehir escort bakırköy escort nişantaşı escort avcılar escort büyükçekmece escort kurtkoy escort konya escort beşiktaş escort taksim escort beylikdüzü escort malatya escort sakarya escort şişli escort maltepe escort kadıköy escort ataköy escort bostancı escort şirinevler escort bağcılar escort üsküdar escort etiler escort başaksehir escort ortaköy escort kağıthane escort sultangazi escort halkalı escort çekmeköy escort şaşkınbakkal escort mamak escort sincan escort keçiören escort çankaya escort beypazarı escort akyurt escort pursaklar escort kahramankazan escort göztepe escort alsancak escort bornova escort buca escort karabaglar escort karşıyaka escort konak escort narlıdere escort izmit escort başiskele escort kandira escort körfez escort karamürsel escort dilovası escort gölcük escort gebze escort kocaeli escort kayseri escort elazığ escort denizli escort diyarbakir escort adana escort ankara escort izmir escort antalya escort gaziantep escort kayseri escort konya escort mersin escort denizli escort kocaeli escort diyarbakır escort alanya escort manavgat escort bursa escort eskişehir escort sakarya escort samsun escort malatya escort trabzon escort adıyaman escort afyon escort ağrı escort aksaray escort amasya escort ardahan escort artvin escort aydın escort balikesir escort bartın escort batman escort bayburt escort bilecik escort bingöl escort bitlis escort bolu escort burdur escort çanakkale escort çankırı escort çorum escort düzce escort edirne escort elazığ escort erzincan escort erzurum escort giresun escort gümüşhane escort hatay escort ığdır escort ısparta escort maraş escort karabük escort karaman escort kars escort kastamonu escort kilis escort kırıkkale escort kırklareli escort kırşehir escort kütahya escort manisa escort mardin escort muğla escort muş escort nevşehir escort niğde escort ordu escort osmaniye escort rize escort urfa escort siirt escort sinop escort şırnak escort sivas escort ordu escort tokat escort tunceli escort usak escort van escort yalova escort yozgat escort zonguldak escort kıbrıs escort
        adana escort adapazarı escort afyon escort aksaray escort alanya escort aliağa escort amasya escort antalya escort ataşehir escort aydın escort balıkesir escort bartın escort batman escort bayraklı escort bilecik escort bodrum escort bolu escort bornova escort buca escort burdur escort bursa escort çanakkale escort çankırı escort çorum escort darıca escort didim escort edirne escort edremit escort elazığ escort konya escort eryaman escort kıbrıs escort eskişehir escort fethiye escort giresun escort gümüşhane escort güngören escort hatay escort iskenderun escort ısparta escort gaziemir escort karabük escort karaman escort karşıyaka escort kaş escort kastamonu escort kayseri escort kırıkkale escort kırklareli escort kırşehir escort kocaeli escort kuşadası escort kütahya escort lara escort malatya escort manisa escort maraş escort mersin escort muğla escort nevşehir escort niğde escort ödemiş escort ordu escort osmaniye escort pendik escort sakarya escort atakum escort samsun escort sincan escort sinop escort sivas escort tekirdağ escort tokat escort trabzon escort tuzla escort urfa escort uşak escort düzce escort yalova escort yozgat escort zonguldak escort dörtyol escort antakya escort yüreğir escort bandırma escort gürsu escort marmaris escort ereğli escort çorlu escort afşin escort gemlik escort kemer escort karatay escort selçuklu escort beyşehir escort bosna escort ceyhan escort nazilli escort talas escort yıldırım escort

        viagra sipariş

        lifta 20 mg

        cialis fiyat

        viagra 100 mg fiyat

        cialis jel

        viagra satın al

        cialis 5 mg fiyat

        viagra satın al

        viagra fiyatı

        degra

        vigrande

        degra 100 mg

        orcafil

        cialis nedir

        cialis 20 mg eczane fiyatı

        cialis fiyat

        cialis 20 mg

        cialis 100 mg

        viagra fiyat

        lifta

        lifta 5 mg

        hardcis

        cialis eczane

        cialis 5 mg fiyatı

        cialis 100 mg fiyat

        cialis 5 mg

        viagra fiyatları

        viagra satış

        online eczane viagra

        viagra eczane

        cialis 20 mg

        cialis 100 mg

        cialis hap

        cialis 20

        cialis eczane

        cialis satış

        cialis fiyatları

        cialis fiyatı

        viagra fiyat

        viagra fiyatları

        viagra eczane

        viagra satın al

        pfizer viagra satış

        online eczane viagra

        pfizer viagra satın al

        viagra sipariş

        viagra sipariş hattı

        viagra fiyat 2022

        online viagra sipariş

        viagra fiyat 2022 eczane

        viagra fiyat eczane

        cialis 5 mg

        kamagra satın al

        kamagra

        kamagra jel

        kamagra jel sipariş

        kamagra sipariş

        kamagra fiyat

        kamagra jel fiyatı

        kamagra fiyatı

        kamagra 100mg

        kamagra 100mg fiyat

        süper kamagra

        kamagra nedir

        Ereksiyon Hapları

        orcafil 5 mg

        flynta 5 mg

        lifta 5 mg

        flynta 20 mg

        lifta 20 mg

        degra fiyat

        degra 100 mg

        sildegra 100 mg

        sildegra

        sinegra

        vigrande

        vigrande 100 mg

        combo 100 mg

        vigaroo

        jeligra

        cialis satış

        cialis 100 mg fiyat

        cialis 20 mg eczane fiyatı

        cialis 5 mg

        cialis hap

        cialis 5 mg fiyatı

        cialis nedir

        cialis 100 mg

        cialis 20 mg

        cialis fiyat

        cialis

        viagra fiyatı 2021

        viagra fiyat

        viagra yorum

        viagra nedir

        viagra satın al

        viagra sipariş

        eczane viagra

        viagra 100 mg

        orijinal viagra

        viagra 100 mg fiyat

        novagra

        geciktirici krem

        geciktirici sprey

        viga krem

        viga sprey

        nely8

        stag sprey

        delay sprey

        geciktirici mendil

        geciktirici

        saa